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Technical Papers

Page history last edited by Ulrich Bonne 9 years, 9 months ago
  1. The value of solar (VOS) PV in $/kWh, as derived according to a methodology by CleanPowerResearch (http://www.cleanpower.com), is to find the $/kWh point at which all stakeholders would be indifferent about whether this value or rate ($/kWh) is charged or not. The method of calculating VOS may be the same for any utility, but its value may differ, due to its dependence on specifics of each utility. -- A first cut at determining VOS for Hawaii is posted at http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-14-VOS-Hawaii.pdf resulting in 0.312 $/kWh for PVs and 0.465 $/kWh for PVBBs (PV with Battery Backup) today in Hawaii County. The next question is whether distributed solar, on- or off-grid PVBBs can be that elusive, prime (not lone) energy solution, and become the energy back-bone for Hawaii and other regions. PVBBs being socially and environmentally accepted, can we live with its economics, output variability and reliability? The answer in http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-14-ElectricityCostTrends.pdf is a clear "yes," as long as every PV is installed with enough storage to provide the energy needed during the non-sun hours, i.e. typically 50-60% of the daily consumption. Such storage can compensate for passing cloud PV output variability and enable PVBBs to follow grid loads, if so desired. More facts and figures are provided in the PPT presentation: http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/VG-14-100%PVBB.pdf, which explores the feasibility of a near 100% penetration of grid-tied PVBBs. 
  2. Minimum Monthly Charge (MMC) and Connection Fees (CF) charged by utilities to owners of grid-tied PV installations in the news. Claims are that such PVs or PVBBs (PVs with Battery Backup) are low net-kWh/month grid-energy users, who make non-PV ratepayers pay more, because of the underutilized utility generation equipment and grid distribution system. Arizona utilities demanded $50 to 100 per month payments by PV owners. The regulators approved 70¢/month per installed PV-kW, which for Arizona's average 7-kW PV system would amount to ~$5/month. In this 19 Nov 2013 analysis http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-13-MMC.pdf  we estimate what that utility MMC should/might be based on published transmission and distribution costs. Our estimated fair 2013 MMC should be ~$5/month for PVBB (PV with Battery Backup) systems and ~$20/month for PV systems (w/o battery backup) in Hawaii, where the average households consume 500 kWh/month, which can be provided, on average, by a 4-kW PV, preferably with a 8-10 kWh battery to store day-time-generated PV energy for use at night, and thereby minimize grid energy use.  The question then comes up about what PUCs (Public Utility Comissions) and government can/should do to fairly incentivize PVBB for the benefit of all stakeholders. Five (5) items are suggested in http://AlohaFuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-13-PVBB-for-All.pdf of 14 Dec 2013. 
  3.  Resolution drafted for consideration by the Hawaii County Council, that the Hawaii Senate and House of Representatives, the Governor and the Public Utilities Commission be requested to consider and to approve:  (1) A new class of solar PVs energy generators, which may feature means to limit energy injection to the grid, (2) New guidelines for NEM and FIT contracts for such energy systems, (3) No limit for installing such systems, and (4) Utility financing, owning and management of such systems (like Edison Int'l. just started), but installation by commercial installers --http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PR- 13-PVBB-Unlimited.pdf. Limiting energy injection may encourage on-site battery storage and grid stability; utility financing, ownership and management may incentivize minimum curtailment and optimal use of such system outputs, reduce $/kWh rates, and optimize selection of placement of such systems 
  4.  Comparison of life-cycle and electricity costs of PV systems with battery backup (PVBB) -- The comparison was made for PVBBs with different grid-tie contracts (or lack thereof) and for a 30-160% range of  "under- and over-sizes", i.e. PVs sized below or above the average load to be served. For on-site storage (to avoid grid overloading), Li-batteries worth 2.5 hours of (active) storage for peak PV output were chosen at an installed cost of 1000 $/kWh, incl. electronics for charge control, battery-inverter and uninterruptible power, after ~50% subsidies. 30 May 2013. Click on http://AlohaFuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-13-PVBB-LCC-Grid.pdf           A scenario with estimated cents/kWh rates FOR ALL ratepayers on Hawaii Island if our utility were to invest in only the equivalent of 50% of all household roofs is provided in http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB- 13-HELCO-IRP-PUC-0036.pdf, besides comments of the utility's Integrated Resource (5-year) Plan draft for 2013. 
  5. Grid stability with over 50% of distributed PV energy and on-site storage, Chris Williams and U.Bonne. This submitted proposal Concept Paper to DOE was in response to DE-FOA-0000838, Tier 1S, 5 March 2013 – To remove utility concerns that PVs with battery backup (PVBBs) would not adversely impact grid-stability or -overload, even if PV-power(peaks) exceed 300% of any nominal sub-grid peak power rating (i.e. ~50% of energy) – we proposed to develop a quantitative approach to check and prove that grid stability is maintained for grids with such levels of PV-generation, via use of  distributed PVBBs to reduce PV peak grid injection power and maximizing on-site self-consumption. The Concept Paper Funding is at http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PR-13-DOE-CPaper.pdfFunding is contingent on submitting and winning a full proposal. A 25 March 2013 presentation at the NELHA Gateway Center may serve as backup for such a project, see http://AlohaFuels.pbworks.com/f/VG-13-PVBB-Security.pdf
  6. HELCO 2013 Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) – PUC Docket 2012-0036.  Request HELCO study a business plan involving its support of many small, individual PV + battery back-up systems,” U.Bonne, 6 Dec. 2012 -- Having a large number of NEM PV contracts without on-site battery back-up is clearly not economically viable for you, the utility, whereas FIT PV contracts without on-site battery back-up are not economically viable for the rate payers. Both NEM and FIT contracts become viable with on-site battery back-up. The complete letter is at http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-12-HELCO-IRP-PUC-0036.pdf. A short version with comments is at http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-12-WHT-HELCO-IRP-3-950.pdf  
  7. Utility requests for (1) AKP’s biofuel subsidy of 1/6 ¢/kWh and (2) a 4.2% rate hike. New, individual PV+battery, life-cycle 20 ¢/kWh approach for our Big Island energy future.  Ulrich Bonne, HELCO PUC hearing in Kailua-Kona, HI, 30 Oct. 2012 – The estimated cost of the AKP biofuel is 3.9 $/gallon. After conversion to electricity, the estimated rate is 44.6 and 48.3 ¢/kWh, w/ and w/o 50% CapEx subsidy, respectively. An on-grid, turn-key, installed home PV+battery system of 10 $/W  leads to a rate of 14.7 and 26.6%, w/ and w/o a 43% CapEx subsidy, respectively, without volume discounts for the installation of 1000s of such systems. Going off-grid, installing a 0.1 $/W generator, and not paying the MMC would reduce the rate by about another 3 ¢/kWh. Read on at http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-12-HELCO-AKP-PUC.pdf (2 pages) or see an expanded (17 pages) and more detailed account of the win-win opportunity with the PB+batteries solution for individual homes or businesses, the state economy, state tax revenue, and HELCO at http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/PB-12-HELCO-AKP-PUC-1.pdf, revised 26 Nov. 2012  
  8. A vote for more support for environmentally benign home solar energy, Ulrich Bonne and Jonathan Cole, Hawaii, 7 October 2012, Comments submitted to DoE, following the DoE PEIS hearing in Kona, HI, 13 Sept 2012  
  9.  Big Island Clean Energy Security via Roof PVs, U.Bonne, 3-Minute Statement to the Hawaii County Energy Advisory Commission, 18 Oct. 2012   To see the full analysis, click on http://alohafuels.pbworks.com/f/VG-12-PV-Scenario.pdf   Objective: To lower electricity cost from 0.41 to < 0.20 $/kWh*, to have affordable, clean energy security for 200,000 residents in ~73,000 homes, while profitably retaining HELCO’s grid Proposal: Knowing that B.I. home roof area average 1076 ft2 (100 m2), i.e. are good for 10 kW. (A) Install 6 +/- 4 kW PVs to all ~73,000 Big Island home roofs, with 2-5-hour battery back-up to minimize 5-9 pm back-up load from the grid.    (B) Utilize 70% of PV energy on site, w/ 3-5-h battery back-up  (C) Pay $20/month MMC** & give 30% PV energy to utility, and maintain the (residential load portion of) its $-profit for its shareholders of ~$9-18M  (D) Pono (=fair) solution: Use PV on-grid w/HELCO back-up, rather than the lower cost of PV off-grid w/o HELCO, but then also benefit from zero or low-cost “fuel” for EVs or FCVs  (E) Next step: Study such DoE micro-grid PV projects as the one proposed above, vs. weather dynamics. See  e.g. www.silentpwr.com/blog on the SMUD project in Sacramento & others  *  About what imported natural gas-fired generation may achieve today, but not after more world demand    ** MMC = Minimum Monthly Charge  
  10. Life-cycle cost and storage pressure of hydrogen, Ulrich Bonne, 30 August 2011, pdf 
  11. Influence of variable electricity supply on synthetic fuel price, Ulrich Bonne, 6 June 2011, rev. 10 August 2011, pdf webpage  
  12. Testimony to the Hawaii PUC in Kailua-Kona, HI, about the proposed electricity surcharge for HELCO and HECO rate payers, to subsidize AKP’s biofuel,. by Ulrich Bonne, ratepayer & resident of Kailua-Kona, HI, 2 August 2011. 
  13. Electricity storage via batteries or electrolyzers and H2-fuel cells: Comparison of capital costs, Ulrich Bonne, 9 July 2011, rev. 18 July 2011 pdf   
  14. Generation of electricity and synthetic fuel from renewable energy, Ulrich Bonne, 5 May 2011, rev. 6 July 2011; pdf webpage  
  15. Meeting All Electricity Needs via PVs on Available Roof Area, U.Bonne, 16 October 2009, rev. 6 Nov.’09 -- Can Hawaii County Become Energy Self-Sufficient?  As Hawaii strives for renewable and sustainable electricity generation, this analysis found that potentially over 150% of our consumption may be generated via solar-PV on residential and commercial roof tops, i.e. enough to also power EVs and PHEVs.  To see the full analysis, click here




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